Overview of Vaccines

Active immunity is provided by both live and killed (inactivated) vaccines Live vaccines are given SUBCUTANEOUSLY (or PO/Nasal) & cause a sub-clinical infection which induces long last immunity in the patient given only 1 or 2 doses usually SE are more systemic than inactivated vaccines Live vaccines are contraindicated in immunocompromised patients   (inactivated vaccines aren’t) … Continue reading


Influenza Single stranded RNA 3 types: Influenza A Affects all age groups Moderate to severe illness Humans & other animals affected Influenza B Mainly affects children Milder disease Affects humans only Influenza C Rarely reported in humans No epidemics Antigenic shift results in different strands of the seasonal flu virus every year Shifts (H2N2 –> … Continue reading

Pneumococcal disease

Pneumococcal disease Caused by strept pneumoniae Has a polysaccharide capsule that’s important for virulence Symptoms:  abrupt onset of fever, shaking chills, pleuritic chest pain, productive cough, dyspnea, tachypnea, hypoxia Like influenza it has higher rates in elderly & the very young Increased risk of getting pneumococcal meningitis following a cochlear implant Common cause of otitis … Continue reading

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B Can cause jaundice  (fucks liver function–cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis, death) Characterized by a nonspecific prodrome of malaise, fever, HA, myalgia     (a lot of times it can be asymptomatic) Humans are the reservoir and it is transmitted via blood borne Hep B vaccine is 3 doses and provides immunity for at least 20 years … Continue reading


Tetanus Can lead to unopposed muscle contraction and spasm Ppl who get a wound which isn’t clean nor minor & who has had 2 doses or less should receive a TIG (which provides temporary immunity) and a Td or Tdap (to provide longer term immunity) Reservoir is soil or the intestines of humans/animals Transmitted via … Continue reading


Pertussis Clinical features:  incubation period of 7-10 days, insidious (slowly & subtly harmful) onset that’s similar to minor upper respiratory tract infections, minimal fever Catarrhal stage: 1-2 weeks Paroxysmal cough stage: 1-6 weeks Convalescence:  weeks to months


Tdap Reduced amount of Diphtheria and Pertussis toxoids in comparison with the pediatric DTaP vaccines Adults respond to the single dose of Tdap in a similar way to infants respond to the three doses of DTaP Tdap for ppl 10-64(Boostrix) or 11-64 (Adacel) 5 year interval between Td & Tdap is encouraged to limit local … Continue reading


HPV Small DNA virus that humans are a reservoir for and is transmitted via direct contact (most often sexual) Gardasil is an inactivated vaccine containing 6, 11, 16, & 18 99.5% antibody response to all 4 HPV types within 1 month after completion of 3 dose series 95% prevention against cervical disease 99% prevention against … Continue reading

Varicella(Chickenpox) / Zoster (Shingles)

Varicella/Zoster A herpes virus that has its primary infection resulting in varicella (chickenpox) and its recurrent infection resulting in herpes zoster (shingles) Incubation stage is 14-16 days; prodrome for 1-2 days of fever and malaise prior to rash onset Rash appears first on head & is most concentrated on the trunk In health kids- symptoms: … Continue reading