Hep A:  transmitted via fecal-oral, person-person, contaminated food or water Usually self-limiting at which time life-long immunity is conferred Cytolytic T-cell mediated response Kids can be asymptomatic Hep B:  transmitted via blood, saliva, urine, vag fluids, semen, perinatal transmission Leading cause of chronic hepatitis (10% of adults w/ acute hepatitis will develop chronic disease), cirrhosis … Continue reading


Gonorrhea Caused by Neisseria gonorrhea 350,000 new cases/year  (rates were high in the mid 70s & have been decreasing ever since–> 2010 goal is 19 cases per 100,000 ppl) Rates are highest among 20-24 year olds Symptoms:  vaginal/penile discharge  (may be thick, milky white, yellowish, greenish), frequent urination, burning feeling during urination, pelvic tenderness, abdominal … Continue reading


Chlamydia   (nongonococcal urethritis) Most common STD (often occurs in pts w/ gonorrhea)  & incidence is on the rise Causes:  Chlamydia trachomatis   or   Ureaplasma urealyticum Manifestations:  pneumonia (in infants), swollen/tender testicles (epididymitis) In Women: Symptoms:  Usually asymptomatic, abnormal vaginal discharge, pain during sex If not treated in women, Chlamydia can result in Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) … Continue reading

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (aka PID aka salpingitis)

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  (PID aka salpingitis) Infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes & adjacent structures Incidence is 1 million cases/year Causes:  neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis (main), anaerobic bacteria Risk factors:  young age, multiple sex partners, intrauterine contraceptive devices (diaphragm), past history of gonorrhea or chlamydia Symptoms:  nonradiating lower abdominal pain, fever/chills, cervical motion tenderness, N/V, … Continue reading


Trichomoniasis Caused by Trichomonas Vaginalis (flagellated protozoan that can exist for a brief period in a warm moist environment–wet sponge 90min, urine 3 hours, wet cloth for up to 24 hours) 2nd most common STD, ~3 million cases/year Commonly occurs in pts w/ gonorrhea Symptoms: Women:  bad smelling, watery, greenish-yellow foamy vaginal discharge, itchy/inflamed vag, … Continue reading


Syphilis (aka Red Plague, the Great Pox) Caused by Treponema pallidum Primary stage of syphilis:  contact & dissemination of the disease Chancre (painless papule) will appear 1-3 weeks after exposure.  It will heal in 4-6 weeks w/o trxt. Regional lymphadenopathy. Secondary stage of syphilis:  2-24 weeks after contact Manifestations:  skin rashes (especially on the upper … Continue reading

Genital Herpes

Genital Herpes HSV-1 (cold sores & ~15% of genital herpes lesions) HSV-2 (genital & neonatal herpes) Most of HSV-2 positive patients have unrecognized symptoms Results from direct contact w/ active lesions/secretions Incidence has been increasing Route of transmission Cutaneous HSV exposure Acute Infection (symptomatic or asymptomatic) Establishment of latent infection in dorsal root ganglia, innervating … Continue reading