Telemedicine in Pharmacy

Telemedicine- Electronic data exchange between prescriber & pharmacy Dr. can check the PBM formulary & DUR info on their PDA PBM’s will capture more data & thus have a greater power to influence the prescriber.  Rx hub is owned by PBM. 3 types of internet pharmacies Legitimate pharmacies (minority)- like a mail order pharmacy.  Dispense … Continue reading

Pharmacy History Overview (U.S.A.)

Changing Health Priorities in America- 1700-1800: sanitation in big cities Mid1800’s-early 1900: immunizations, gov’t takes responsibility for public health Early 1900 to 1970’s: Public health has large role in overall HC.  Lots of advancements such as transplants & high tech equipment. Present:  Acute illnesses, financing for PH programs, PH is a high priority Prior to … Continue reading

Pharmacy History Overview (U.S.A.)

1850-1900 HC: All meds were OTC and more and more were being developed without any regulation No regulation on drugs Only rich went to doctors, hospitals were only a place for poor people to die Germ theory of disease in the 1860’s greatly decreased the spread of infectious diseases. Cost shifting Early days–cost shifting began … Continue reading

Medicare Overview

Medicare provides HC coverage for: Elderly Disabled People with end stage renal disease Medicare is administered by the federal government. Medicare Part A Pays hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, home health care and hospice Hospital insurance (inpatient) Paid by payroll taxes (must pay in for 10 years) Automatic enrollment Medicare Part B Pays physician, outpatient hospital, … Continue reading

Disease Management

Disease Management: A comprehensive, integrated approach to care and reimbursement Treatment designed to address an illness with maximum effectiveness & efficiency Based on the natural course of a specific disease (different care, different costs) Based on a team approach (focus on total HC cost) & patient focus Treatment is designed to address an illness with … Continue reading

Medicaid Overview

Medicaid was started by Title 19 of the Social Security Act in 1965 OBRA ’90 required DUR be performed for all Medicaid patients Medicaid provides HC coverage for: Poor Entitled people- if you meet certain criteria (newborns etc) *Medicaid covers about ~19% of U.S. population* Medicaid is administered by the state and federal governments together … Continue reading

Public Health Overview

Pharmacist role in Public Health Special disease programs BP, cholesterol monitoring Source of health info Poison prevention Presentations @ schools, churches, senior citizen centers Public Health Department activities: Promote well being of citizens Education & protection plans for epidemics such as AIDS Target hard to reach groups with health programs Native Americans Provide centralized diagnostic … Continue reading

Overview of Healthcare Practioners

Characteristics of Health professionals Self-regulatory & policing Altruism (putting the needs of the patient first) Specialized technical knowledge (exercising judgment in daily duties) Licensed to practice by an accepted credentialing body Education & prescribing capabilities All health care providers have a BS degree Doctors, dentists, podiatry, veterinarians, & optometrists require extra school Doctors are generally … Continue reading

Pharmacy Organizations

APhA- oldest pharmacy organization (1852).  Establishes standards for drugs & chemicals ASHP–accredits residencies & pharmacy tech training NCPA– publishes pharmacy literature primarily for independent pharmacies NABP–serves all the US boards of pharmacy.  Accredits internet pharmacies with VIPPS seal JCAHO (joint commission)– approves Home Health Agencies & hospitals NCQA- independent organization that has quality control measures … Continue reading

Home Care Overview

Services provided by Pharmacists in home care: Home infusion therapy–parenteral nutrition (TPN), enteral nutrition (special feeding tubes), anti-infectives, chemo, biotech products Hospice:  Pain control expertise (especially important because of the NTI with the terminally ill Durable medical equipment (DME):  An original home care service (canes, crutches, beds, respiratory tubing, etc) Factors that influence Home care … Continue reading