Pain Pathophysiology Overview

Receptors involved in pain modulation:

  • opioid receptors
  • alpha-2 adrenergic receptors
  • voltage-gated calcium channels
  • NMDA receptors

Chemical mediators (sensitize neurons to pain):

  • substance P
  • prostaglandins
  • bradykinin
  • glutamate

Neurotransmitters (facilitate pain modulation):

  • norepinephrine
  • serotonin
  • GABA
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