• Signs/symptoms:  muscle weakness, cramps, agitation, confusion, hallucinations, tetany, seizures, apathy, depression, hyperactive deep tendon reflex, anorexia, N/V, EKG changes, cardiac arrhythmias, refractory hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, increased risk of digoxin toxicity
  • Causes:  inadequate intake (alcoholism, etc), inadequate absorption (cancer, etc), excessive GI loss (diarrhea, laxative abuse, etc), excessive urinary loss (meds, kidney issues, etc)
  • Medication causes:  diuretics, aminoglycosides (gentamicin, etc), insulin, amphotericin B, vitamin D, cyclosporine, cisplatin, foscarnet, etidronate
  • Trxt:  magnesium sulfate (IV), magnesium oxide (PO)
    • Replace more cautiously in ppl with kidney problems
    • Must correct hypokalemia and hypocalcemia together

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