• Signs/symptoms:  hypocalcemia, tetany, metastatic calcification, high phosphate can accelerate a decline in renal failure
  • Causes:  renal failure, severe tissue breakdown, hypoparathyroidism, acidosis, vitamin D excess, overuse of phosphorous supplements
  • Medication causes:  etidronate (bisphosphonates), interferon-alpha, pamidronate, phosphate-containing enemas/laxatives, phosphorus supplements
  • Trxt: dietary restriction of phosphate & protein, oral phosphate binders; if tetany, admin IV Ca salts, AlOH antacids, MgOH (milk of mag), CaCarb
    • More commonly: CaAcetate, Sevelamer Carb, Lanthanum Carb

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