• Signs/symptoms:  muscle weakness, GI hypermotility, hypotension, acidosis, EKG changes, cardiac arrythmias, a decrease in pH causes an increase in potassium
  • Causes: increased potassium intake due to salt subs, blood transfusions, rapid excessive IV admin, meds (K-sparing diuretics, cyclosporine, ACE-I, B-blockers, bactrim, NSAIDs, heparin, digoxin, succinylcholine, K supplements
  • Other causes: decreased K excretion due to acute or chronic renal failure, addison’s disease (decreased ADH production), K release from cells due to tissue breakdown or metabolic acidosis
  • Trxt:  Ca to stabilize the myocardium preventing against arrhythmias; dextrose + insulin +/- bicarb; beta agonists (albuterol)–better in non-acute situations; remove K ions from body using drugs like Na polystyrene sulfonate which exchanges Na for K in the gut, or loop diuretics, hemodialysis; or discontinue the aggravating drug

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