Overview of Healthcare Practioners

  • Characteristics of Health professionals
    • Self-regulatory & policing
    • Altruism (putting the needs of the patient first)
    • Specialized technical knowledge (exercising judgment in daily duties)
    • Licensed to practice by an accepted credentialing body
  • Education & prescribing capabilities
    • All health care providers have a BS degree
    • Doctors, dentists, podiatry, veterinarians, & optometrists require extra school
    • Doctors are generally required to have at least a 3 year residency
    • PA’s, APRN & CRNA require a Master’s degree
    • Fellowships for pharmacists are 2-year researched based programs
      • OD–optometrist can prescribe eye-related meds
      • MD/DO have no restrictions on prescribing
      • DDS/DMD–dentist can prescribe dental-related meds
      • DPM–podiatrist can prescribe foot-related meds
      • ARNP/CRNA–nurses that can prescribe within practice specialty
      • PA–can prescribe under a supervising doctor (with restrictions)
      • DVM–veterinarian can prescribe animal-related meds
      • RN–registered nurses can’t prescribe
  • Licensing vs. certification   (both are types of certification)
    • Licensing–
      • most restrictive form of credentialing
      • State law determines testing involved, scope of practice & education
      • Illegal to use title or practice w/o credentials
      • Ex. Doctors, pharmacists, dentists
    • Certification
      • Less restrictive than licensing
      • State & national organizations attest to member’s qualifications
      • Not illegal to use the title or practice w/o credentials
      • Ex. Social workers, psychologists
  • A Resident’s Perspective on Professionalism in Pharmacy
    • Resident’s need to lead by example
  • Drug misadventuring-
    • Adverse reactions
    • Hospitalizations
    • Death
      • These events led to the current mission & philosophy of pharmacy practice
  • Barriers to pharmaceutical care
    • Drug product focus aka dispensing has been main focus
    • Service occurs distant from patient
    • Turf battles with doctors and nurses
    • Lack of financial incentive
    • Laziness
    • Lack of proper facilities

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