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When to Refer a Patient to a Physician

Pediatric patients should be referred to physicians if any of the following symptoms are present: skin rash chronic cough “bark like” cough stridor hoarseness constant ear pain or pulling/tugging at ears seizure or convulsion recently rapid or difficulty breathing severe abdominal pain or cramping diarrhea > 2 days vomiting > 12 hours infant not feeding … Continue reading

Abuse, Addiction and Dependence

Addiction:  a primary, chronic, neurobiological disease with genetic, psychosocial and environmental factors with influence its development and manifestations.  It is characterized by behaviors that include decreased control over drug use, complusive use, continued use despite harm and/or craving. Physical Dependence:  a state of adaptation that is manifested by a drug-class-specific withdrawal syndrome that can be … Continue reading

Triggers of Anaphylaxis

Common triggers of anaphylaxis are outlined below based on whether they are immunologically or non-immunologically based. Immunological IgE-mediated Animal dander Rubber latex Occupational allergens (ex. dust) Insect venom (ex.  bee stings) Foods (ex. Milk, fish, eggs, peanuts) Medications (ex.  Vaccines, penicillins, sulfa drugs) IgE-independent Contrast dye Blood products (ex. Immunoglobulin) Medications (ex. ACE inhibitors, ARBs) … Continue reading

Considerations for Epilepsy Treatment in Pediatrics

Age Insurance Comorbidities (particularly ADHD, cerebral palsy, autism, mental retardation, migraines and being conscious of the drug-drug interactions that may be associated with the meds being used to treat those conditions) Correct diagnosis of seizure disorder (seizure type and EEG findings if applicable) Side effect profile of antiepileptic Medication administration considerations (ex. tabs vs. liquids; … Continue reading

Dietary Gluten

Common Sources of Gluten in the Diet: Malt containing products (ex. Malt vinegar) Rye Matzo Wheat Couscous Breading Barley Flour Brown Rice Syrup Seasoned chips Seasoned Nuts Hot dogs Salami Sausage Processed lunch meats Imitation meats (ex. Bacon, seafood, etc) Rice Pilaf Drink mixes Beer Croutons Some medications/vitamins/supplements Energy bars Dairy substitutes Marinades Sauces/gravies Salad … Continue reading